“The system cannot find the file specified” error in the WIF FAM module

The Federation Authentication Module (FAM) shipped as part of WIF protects by the default the session cookies from being tampered with in passive scenarios using DPAPI. As I mentioned in the past, this technique simplifies a lot the initial deployment for the whole solution as nothing extra needs to configured, the automatically generated DPAPI key is used to protect the cookies, so this might be reason to have that as default protection mechanism in WSE, WCF and now WIF.

However, this technique has some serious drawbacks from my point of view that makes it useless for real enterprise scenarios.

If web application that relies on FAM for authenticating the users is hosted in IIS. The account running the IIS process needs to have a profile created in order to use DPAPI. A workaround for this is to log into the machine with that account to create the initial profile or run some script to do it automatically.

DPAPI is not suitable for web farm scenarios, as the machine key is used to protect the cookies. If the cookie is protected with one key, the following requests must be sent to the same machine. A workaround for this could be to use sticky sessions, so all the user requests from the same machine are handled by the same machine on the farm.

Fortunately, WIF already provides some built-in classes to replace this default mechanism by a protection mechanism based on RSA keys with X509 certificates.

The “SecuritySessionHandler” is the handler in WIF that is responsible for tracking the authentication sessions into a cookie. That handler receives by default some built-in classes that applies transformations to the cookie content, such as the DeflatCookieTransform and the ProtectedDataCookieTransform (for protecting the content with DPAPI). There are also two other CookieTransform derived classes that are not used at all, and becomes very handy to enable enterprise scenarios, the RSAEncryptionCookieTransform and RSASignatureCookieTransform classes. Both classes receives either a RSA key or X509 certificate that is used to encrypt or sign the cookie content.

Therefore, you can put the following code in the global.asax file to replace the default cookie transformations by the ones that use a X509 certificate.

protected void Application_Start(object sender, EventArgs e)
            FederatedAuthentication.ServiceConfigurationCreated += new EventHandler<Microsoft.IdentityModel.Web.Configuration.ServiceConfigurationCreatedEventArgs>(FederatedAuthentication_ServiceConfigurationCreated);

        void FederatedAuthentication_ServiceConfigurationCreated(object sender, Microsoft.IdentityModel.Web.Configuration.ServiceConfigurationCreatedEventArgs e)
            var cookieProtectionCertificate = CertificateUtil.GetCertificate(StoreName.My,
                StoreLocation.LocalMachine, "CN=myTestCert");
                new SessionSecurityTokenHandler(new System.Collections.ObjectModel.ReadOnlyCollection<CookieTransform> (
                    new List<CookieTransform>
                        new DeflateCookieTransform(),
                        new RsaEncryptionCookieTransform(cookieProtectionCertificate),
                        new RsaSignatureCookieTransform(cookieProtectionCertificate)


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