LINQ to Objects (6) Interactive Extensions (Ix)

[LINQ via C#] - [LINQ to Objects]

Besides the built-in query methods (standard query operators) provided by System.Linq.Enumerable, Microsoft also provides additional query methods through the System.Interactive NuGet package (aka Interactive Extensions (Ix) library), which has a System.Linq.EnumerableEx type with the following query methods:

  • Sequence queries: return a new IEnumerable<T> sequence (deferred execution) 
    • Generation: Defer, Create, Return, Repeat
    • Filtering: IgnoreElements*, DistinctUntilChanged
    • Mapping: SelectMany, Scan, Expand
    • Concatenation: Concat, StartWith
    • Set: Distinct
    • Partitioning: TakeLast*, SkipLast**
    • Conversion: Hide
    • Buffering: Buffer*, Share, Publish, Memoize
    • Exception: Throw, Catch, Finally, OnErrorResumeNext, Retry
    • Imperative: If, Case, Using, While, DoWhile, Generate, For
    • Iteration: Do
  • Value queries: return a single value (immediate execution) 
    • Aggregation: Min, Max, MinBy, MaxBy
    • Quantifiers: isEmpty
  • Void queries: return void (immediate execution)
    • Iteration: ForEach

There is not much documentation for this library provided from Microsoft, except the APIs’ XML comments. In this part, these query methods are discussed by either examples and/or their internal implementation, whichever can be more intuitive.

Similar to Enumerable methods, in above list, Methods returning void and methods returning a single value implement immediate execution; and methods returning an IEnumerable<T> sequence implements deferred execution, where the methods marked with * implement eager evaluation, and the unmarked methods implements lazy evaluation. The SkipLast method marked with ** is special, it can be eager evaluation or lazy evaluation, which is discussed later.

Sequence queries

Generation

Defer accepts a sequence factory:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Defer<TResult>(Func<IEnumerable<TResult>> enumerableFactory)
{
    foreach (TResult value in enumerableFactory())
    {
        yield return value; // Deferred execution.
    }
}

And it defers the execution of the factory:

public static void Defer()
{
    Func<IEnumerable<int>> sequenceFactory = () =>
    {
        "Executing factory.".WriteLine();
        return Enumerable.Empty<int>();
    };
    IEnumerable<int> sequence1 = sequenceFactory() // Executing factory.
        .Where(int32 => int32 > 0);
    IEnumerable<int> sequence2 = EnumerableEx.Defer(sequenceFactory)
        .Where(int32 => int32 > 0);
}

Similarly, Create accepts an iterator factory method, and delay its execution:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Create<TResult>(Func<IEnumerator<TResult>> getEnumerator)
{
    using (IEnumerator<TResult> iterator = getEnumerator())
    {
        while (iterator.MoveNext())
        {
            yield return iterator.Current; // Deferred execution.
        }
    }
}

The other overload of Create is not so intuitive:

public static IEnumerable<T> Create<T>(Action<IYielder<T>> create);

It accepts a callback function of type System.Linq.IYielder<T> –> void. IYielder<T> has 2 members, Return and Break, representing yield return statement and yield break statement.

public interface IYielder<in T>
{
    IAwaitable Return(T value);

    IAwaitable Break();
}

In C#, lambda expression does not support yield statements, compiling the following code causes error CS1621: The yield statement cannot be used inside an anonymous method or lambda expression.

// Cannot be compiled.
internal static void Create()
{
    Func<IEnumerable<int>> sequenceFactory = () =>
    {
        yield return 0;
        yield return 1;
        yield break;
        yield return 2;
    };
    IEnumerable<int> sequence = sequenceFactory();
    sequence.WriteLine(); // 0 1
}

Here Create provides a way to virtually use the yield statements in lambda expression:

internal static void Create()
{
    Action<IYielder<int>> sequenceFactory = async yield =>
    {
        await yield.Return(0); // yield return 0;
        await yield.Return(1); // yield return 1;
        await yield.Break(); // yield break;
        await yield.Return(2); // yield return 2;
    };
    IEnumerable<int> sequence = EnumerableEx.Create(sequenceFactory);
    sequence.WriteLine(); // 0 1
}

In previous part, when implementing Cast, since return statement cannot be used with yield return statement, the following code cannot be compiled:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Cast<TResult>(this IEnumerable source)
{
    if (source is IEnumerable<TResult> genericSource)
    {
        return genericSource; // Cannot be compiled.
    }
    foreach (object value in source)
    {
        yield return (TResult)value; // Deferred execution.
    }
}

With Create and IYielder<T>, Cast can be implemented without yield return statement. The following code works:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> CastWithCreate<TResult>(this IEnumerable source) =>
    source is IEnumerable<TResult> genericSource
        ? genericSource
        : EnumerableEx.Create<TResult>(async yield =>
            {
                foreach (object value in source)
                {
                    await yield.Return((TResult)value); // yield return (TResult)value;
                }
            });

IYielder<T> is a great idea before C# 7.0 introduces local function, but at runtime, it can have unexpected iterator behavior when used with more complex control flow, like try-catch statement. Please avoid using this query method. In the above examples, define local function to use yield return statement:

internal static void Create()
{
    IEnumerable<int> SequenceFactory()
    {
        yield return 0; // Deferred execution.
        yield return 1;
        yield break;
        yield return 2;
    }
    IEnumerable<int> sequence = SequenceFactory();
    sequence.WriteLine(); // 0 1
}

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Cast<TResult>(this IEnumerable source)
{
    IEnumerable<TResult> CastGenerator()
    {
        foreach (object value in source)
        {
            yield return (TResult)value; // Deferred execution.
        }
    }
    return source is IEnumerable<TResult> genericSource
        ? genericSource
        : CastGenerator();
}

Return just wraps value in a singleton sequence:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Return<TResult>(TResult value)
{
    yield return value; // Deferred execution.
}

Actually, Return is a term used in other functional languages like Haskell, means wrap something in a monad (Monad is discussed in detail in the Category Theory chapter). However in C# return has totally different semantic. It could be more consistent with .NET naming convention if this method is named as FromValue, like Task.FromResult, Task.FromException, DateTime.FromBinary, DateTimeOffset.FromFileTime, TimeSpan.FromSeconds, RegistryKey.FromHandle, Observale.FromAsync, etc..

Repeat generates an infinite sequence by repeating a value forever:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Repeat<TResult>(TResult value)
{
    while (true)
    {
        yield return value; // Deferred execution.
    }
}

Another overload repeats values in the specified sequence:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Repeat<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, int? count = null)
{
    if (count == null)
    {
        while (true)
        {
            foreach (TSource value in source)
            {
                yield return value; // Deferred execution.
            }
        }
    }

    for (int i = 0; i < count; i++)
    {
        foreach (TSource value in source)
        {
            yield return value; // Deferred execution.
        }
    }
}

When count is not provided, it repeats iterating the source sequence forever.

Filtering

IgnoreElements filters out all values from the source sequence:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> IgnoreElements<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source)
{
    foreach (TSource value in source) { } // Eager evaluation.
    yield break; // Deferred execution.
}

DistinctUntilChanged removes the continuous duplication:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> DistinctUntilChanged<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source);

public static IEnumerable<TSource> DistinctUntilChanged<TSource>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, IEqualityComparer<TSource> comparer);

public static IEnumerable<TSource> DistinctUntilChanged<TSource, TKey>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TSource, TKey> keySelector);

public static IEnumerable<TSource> DistinctUntilChanged<TSource, TKey>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TSource, TKey> keySelector, IEqualityComparer<TKey> comparer);

For example:

internal static void DistinctUntilChanged()
{
    IEnumerable<int> source = new int[]
    {
        0, 0, 0, /* Changed. */ 1, 1, /* Changed. */ 0, 0, /* Changed. */ 2, /* Changed. */ 1, 1
    };
    source.DistinctUntilChanged().WriteLines(); // 0 1 0 2 1
}

Mapping

SelectMany maps source sequence’s each value to the other sequence:

public static IEnumerable<TOther> SelectMany<TSource, TOther>
    (this IEnumerable<TSource> source, IEnumerable<TOther> other) => source.SelectMany(value => other);

Scan accepts the same parameters as Aggregate. The difference is, Aggregate returns one final accumulation result value, Scan returns a sequence of all accumulation steps’ results. So Scan can implement deferred execution:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Scan<TSource>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TSource, TSource, TSource> func)
{
    using (IEnumerator<TSource> iterator = source.GetEnumerator())
    {
        if (!iterator.MoveNext())
        {
            yield break; // Deferred execution.
        }
        TSource accumulate = iterator.Current;
        while (iterator.MoveNext())
        {
            yield return accumulate = func(accumulate, iterator.Current); // Deferred execution.
        }
    }
}

public static IEnumerable<TAccumulate> Scan<TSource, TAccumulate>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, TAccumulate seed, Func<TAccumulate, TSource, TAccumulate> func) => 
        source.Select(value => seed = func(seed, value));

For example:

internal static void Scan()
{
    int finalProduct = Int32Source().Aggregate((product, int32) => product * int32).WriteLine();
    // ((((-1 * 1) * 2) * 3) * -4) => 24.

    IEnumerable<int> allProducts = Int32Source().Scan((product, int32) => product * int32).WriteLines();
    // ((((-1 * 1) * 2) * 3) * -4) => { -1, -2, -6, 24 }.
}

Expand maps source values with the selector, then maps the result values with the selector, and so on.

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Expand<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TSource, IEnumerable<TSource>> selector);

In the following example, selector maps each value to a singleton sequence:

internal static void ExpandSingle()
{
    Enumerable
        .Range(0, 5)
        .Expand(int32 => EnumerableEx.Return(int32 * int32))
        .Take(25)
        .WriteLines();
    // 0 1 2 3 4, map each int32 to { int32 * int32 } =>
    // 0 1 4 9 16, map each int32 to { int32 * int32 }: =>
    // 0 1 16 81 256, map each int32 to { int32 * int32 } =>
    // 0 1 256 6561 65536, map each int32 to { int32 * int32 } =>
    // 0 1 65536 43046721 4294967296, ...
}

The mapping goes on forever and results a infinite sequence. If selector maps each value to a sequence with more than one values, then the result sequences grows rapidly:

internal static void ExpandMuliple()
{
    Enumerable
        .Range(0, 5)
        .Expand(int32 => Enumerable.Repeat(int32, 2))
        .Take(75)
        .WriteLines();
    // 0 1 2 3 4 => map each int32 to { int32, int32 }:
    // 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 => map each int32 to { int32, int32 }:
    // 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 => map each int32 to { int32, int32 }:
    // 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 => ...
}

If selector maps each value to empty sequence, the expanding ends after all source values are iterated:

internal static void ExpandNone()
{
    Enumerable
        .Range(0, 5)
        .Expand(int32 => Enumerable.Empty<int>())
        .Take(100)
        .WriteLines();
    // 0 1 2 3 4 => map each int32 to { }.
}

Concatenation

2 more overloads of Concat is provided to concatenate any number of sequences:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Concat<TSource>(
    this IEnumerable<IEnumerable<TSource>> sources) => sources.SelectMany(source => source);

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Concat<TSource>(
    params IEnumerable<TSource>[] sources) => sources.Concat();

By concatenating the sequences one after another, Concat flattens a hierarchical 2-level-sequence into a flat 1-level-sequence, which is the same as SelectMany.

StartWith prepend the specified values to the source sequence:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> StartWith<TSource>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, params TSource[] values) => values.Concat(source);

Set

A overload of Distinct is provided to accept a key selector function:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Distinct<TSource, TKey>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TSource, TKey> keySelector, IEqualityComparer<TKey> comparer = null)
{
    HashSet<TKey> hashSet = new HashSet<TKey>(comparer);
    foreach (TSource value in source)
    {
        if (hashSet.Add(keySelector(value)))
        {
            yield return value; // Deferred execution.
        }
    }
}

Partitioning

Skip/Take skips/takes the specified number values at the beginning of the source sequence. In contrast, SkipLast/TakeLast skips/takes the specified number of values at the end of the source sequence:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> SkipLast<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, int count);

public static IEnumerable<TSource> TakeLast<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, int count);

For example:

internal static void SkipLastTakeLast()
{
    int[] skipFirst2 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Skip(2).ToArray(); // 2 3 4.
    int[] skipLast2 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).SkipLast(2).ToArray(); // 0 1 2.
    int[] takeFirst2 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Take(2).ToArray(); // 0 1.
    int[] takeLast2 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).TakeLast(2).ToArray(); // 3 4.
}

The implementation of SkipLast/TakeLast is very interesting. As already discussed, Take implements lazy evaluation. However, TakeLast has to pull all values to know which are the tail values of the source sequence. So TakeLast implements eager evaluation, and uses a queue to store the tail values:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> TakeLast<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, int count)
{
    if (count < 0)
    {
        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException(nameof(count));
    }

    IEnumerable<TSource> TakeLastGGenerator()
    {
        if (count <= 0)
        {
            yield break; // Deferred execution.
        }
        Queue<TSource> lastValues = new Queue<TSource>(count);
        foreach (TSource value in source)
        {
            if (lastValues.Count >= count)
            {
                lastValues.Dequeue();
            }

            lastValues.Enqueue(value);
        } // Eager evaluation.
        while (lastValues.Count > 0)
        {
            yield return lastValues.Dequeue(); // Deferred execution.
        }
    }
    return TakeLastGGenerator();
}

Once TakeLast query is executed, all values are evaluated, and the last values are stored in a Queue<T> buffer.

SkipLast also uses a queue to buffer the tail values:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> SkipLast<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, int count)
{
    if (count < 0)
    {
        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException(nameof(count));
    }

    IEnumerable<TSource> SkipLastGenerator()
    {
        Queue<TSource> lastValues = new Queue<TSource>();
        foreach (TSource value in source)
        {
            lastValues.Enqueue(value);
            if (lastValues.Count > count) // Can be lazy, eager, or between.
            {
                yield return lastValues.Dequeue(); // Deferred execution.
            }
        }
    }
    return SkipLastGenerator();
}

It uses count as the max length of the buffer. When SkipLast starts to execute, it evaluate values to fill the buffer. When the buffer is full, each new value is enqueued to the buffer, and the head value of the buffer is dequeued and yielded. So at the end of query execution, the values left in the queue are the last values to skip. If count is equal to or greater than the source sequence’s value count, when trying to pull the first value from the returned generator, all values are pulled from the source sequence and buffered in the queue, and nothing is yielded to the caller, which is eager evaluation similar to IgnoreElements. If count is 0, SkipLast becomes lazy evaluation, it does not skip anything, just simply yield each source value to caller just like Hide. So SkipLast’s laziness/eagerness depends on the ratio of count to skip and count of source sequence.

Conversion

Hide has the same signature as AsEnumerable. As previously demonstrated, AsEnumerable simply returns the source sequence itself to caller. Hide returns a new generator to hide the source sequence from the caller:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Hide<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source)
{
    foreach (TSource value in source)
    {
        yield return value; // Deferred execution.
    }
}

Here are the difference:

internal static void Hide()
{
    List<int> source = new List<int>() { 1, 2 };
    IEnumerable<int> readWrite = source.AsEnumerable();
    object.ReferenceEquals(source, readWrite).WriteLine(); // True
    ((List<int>)readWrite).Reverse(); // List<T>.Reverse.
    ((List<int>)readWrite).Add(3); // List<T>.Add.

    IEnumerable<int> readOnly = source.Hide();
    object.ReferenceEquals(source, readOnly).WriteLine(); // False
}

Buffering

Buffer segments the source sequence into smaller lists:

public static IEnumerable<IList<TSource>> Buffer<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, int count, int skip);

Here count is the length of each smaller list, and skip is the index to start the next list. For example:

internal static void Buffer()
{
    IEnumerable<IList<int>> buffers1 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Buffer(2, 1);
    // {
    //    { 0, 1 }, { 1, 2 }, { 2, 3 }, { 3, 4 }, { 4 }   
    // }

    IEnumerable<IList<int>> buffers2 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Buffer(2, 2); // Equivalent to Buffer(2).
    // {
    //    { 0, 1 }, { 2, 3 }, { 4 }   
    // }

    IEnumerable<IList<int>> buffers3 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Buffer(2, 3);
    // {
    //    { 0, 1 }, { 3, 4 }
    // }
}

Buffer implements eager evaluation. it creates all the smaller lists when the first list is pulled.

The other overload without skip uses count as skip:

public static IEnumerable<IList<TSource>> Buffer<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, int count);

In above example, calling Buffer(2, 2) is equivalent to Buffer(2).

Share buffers the values of a sequence and share them with several iterators:

public static IBuffer<TSource> Share<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source);

The returned System.Linq.IBuffer<T> is just IEnumerable<T> plus IDisposable:

namespace System.Linq
{
    public interface IBuffer<out T> : IEnumerable<T>, IEnumerable, IDisposable { }
}

By default, an IEnumerable<T> sequence’s multiple iterators are independent from each other. When these iterators are called, callers pull independent values from each iterator. In contrast, shared iterator works as if they are the same single iterator:

internal static void Share()
{
    IEnumerable<int> sequence = Enumerable.Range(0, 5);
    IEnumerator<int> independentIteratorA = sequence.GetEnumerator();
    IEnumerator<int> independentIteratorB = sequence.GetEnumerator();          // A|B|C
    independentIteratorA.MoveNext(); independentIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 0| |
    independentIteratorB.MoveNext(); independentIteratorB.Current.WriteLine(); //  |0|
    independentIteratorA.MoveNext(); independentIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 1| |
    IEnumerator<int> independentIteratorC = sequence.GetEnumerator();          //  | |
    independentIteratorC.MoveNext(); independentIteratorC.Current.WriteLine(); //  | |0
    independentIteratorA.MoveNext(); independentIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 2| |
    independentIteratorB.MoveNext(); independentIteratorB.Current.WriteLine(); //  |1|
    independentIteratorA.MoveNext(); independentIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 3| |
    // ...

    IBuffer<int> share = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Share();
    IEnumerator<int> sharedIterator1 = share.GetEnumerator();
    IEnumerator<int> sharedIterator2 = share.GetEnumerator();        // A|B|C
    sharedIterator1.MoveNext(); sharedIterator1.Current.WriteLine(); // 0| |
    sharedIterator2.MoveNext(); sharedIterator2.Current.WriteLine(); //  |1|
    sharedIterator1.MoveNext(); sharedIterator1.Current.WriteLine(); // 2| |
    IEnumerator<int> sharedIterator3 = share.GetEnumerator();        //  | |
    sharedIterator3.MoveNext(); sharedIterator3.Current.WriteLine(); //  | |3

    share.Dispose();
    sharedIterator1.MoveNext(); // ObjectDisposedException.
    sharedIterator2.MoveNext(); // ObjectDisposedException.
    sharedIterator3.MoveNext(); // ObjectDisposedException.
}

When pulling values with multiple independent iterators, each value can be pulled multiple times. When pulling values with multiple shared iterators, each value can only be pulled once. And IBuffer<T>.Dispose terminates the sharing. After calling Dispose, all shared iterators’ MoveNext throws ObjectDisposedException.

The other overload accepts a selector function:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Share<TSource, TResult>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TResult>> selector) => 
        Create(() => selector(source.Share()).GetEnumerator());

For example:

internal static void ConcatShared()
{
    IEnumerable<int> source1 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5);
    source1.Concat(source1).WriteLines(); // 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

    using (IBuffer<int> source2 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Share())
    {
        source2.Concat(source2).WriteLines(); // 0 1 2 3 4
    }
    // Equivalent to:
    IEnumerable<int> source3 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5);
    source3.Share(source => source.Concat(source)).WriteLines(); // 0 1 2 3 4
}

The above 2 kinds of Share usage are equivalent. As already discussed, Concat can be desugared as:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Concat<TSource>(
    IEnumerable<TSource> first, IEnumerable<TSource> second)
{
    using (IEnumerator<TSource> iterator1 = first.GetEnumerator())
    {
        while (iterator1.MoveNext())
        {
            yield return iterator1.Current;
        }
    }
    using (IEnumerator<TSource> iterator2 = second.GetEnumerator())
    {
        while (iterator2.MoveNext())
        {
            yield return iterator2.Current;
        }
    }
}

So that the above 3 Concat calls can be virtually viewed as:

internal static void DesugaredConcatShared()
{
    IEnumerable<int> source1 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5);
    IEnumerable<int> Concat1() // source1.Concat(source1)
    {
        using (IEnumerator<int> independentIterator1 = source1.GetEnumerator())
        {
            while (independentIterator1.MoveNext())
            {
                yield return independentIterator1.Current; // yield return 0 1 2 3 4.
            }
        }
        using (IEnumerator<int> independentIterator2 = source1.GetEnumerator())
        {
            while (independentIterator2.MoveNext())
            {
                yield return independentIterator2.Current; // yield return 0 1 2 3 4.
            }
        }
    }
    Concat1().WriteLines();

    using (IBuffer<int> source2 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Share())
    {
        IEnumerable<int> Concat2() // source2.Concat(source2)
        {
            using (IEnumerator<int> sharedIterator1 = source2.GetEnumerator())
            {
                while (sharedIterator1.MoveNext())
                {
                    yield return sharedIterator1.Current; // yield return 0 1 2 3 4.
                }
            }
            using (IEnumerator<int> sharedIterator2 = source2.GetEnumerator())
            {
                while (sharedIterator2.MoveNext())
                {
                    yield return sharedIterator2.Current; // yield return nothing.
                }
            }
        }
        Concat2().WriteLines();
    }

    IEnumerable<int> source3 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5);
    IEnumerable<int> Concat3() // source3.Share(source => source.Concat(source))
    {
        using (IBuffer<int> source = source3.Share())
        {
            using (IEnumerator<int> sharedIterator1 = source.GetEnumerator())
            {
                while (sharedIterator1.MoveNext())
                {
                    yield return sharedIterator1.Current; // yield return 0 1 2 3 4.
                }
            }
            using (IEnumerator<int> sharedIterator2 = source.GetEnumerator())
            {
                while (sharedIterator2.MoveNext())
                {
                    yield return sharedIterator2.Current; // yield return nothing.
                }
            }
        }
    }
    Concat3().WriteLines();
}

When Concat is executed, if values are pulled from 2 independent iterators, both iterators yields all source values; if values are pulled from 2 shared iterators. only the first iterator yields all source values, and the second iterator yields nothing. Another example is Zip:

internal static void ZipShared()
{
    IEnumerable<int> source1 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5);
    source1.Zip(source1, ValueTuple.Create).WriteLines(); // (0, 0) (1, 1) (2, 2) (3, 3) (4, 4)

    using (IBuffer<int> source2 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Share())
    {
        source2.Zip(source2, ValueTuple.Create).WriteLines(); // (0, 1) (2, 3)
    }
    // Equivalent to:
    IEnumerable<int> source3 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5);
    source3.Share(source => source.Zip(source, ValueTuple.Create)).WriteLines(); // (0, 1) (2, 3).
}

Similarly, the above 3 Zip calls can be virtually viewed as:

internal static void DesugaredZipShared()
{
    IEnumerable<int> source1 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5);
    IEnumerable<(int, int)> Zip1()
    {
        using (IEnumerator<int> independentIterator1 = source1.GetEnumerator())
        using (IEnumerator<int> independentIterator2 = source1.GetEnumerator())
        {
            while (independentIterator1.MoveNext() && independentIterator2.MoveNext())
            {
                yield return (independentIterator1.Current, independentIterator2.Current);
                // yield return (0, 0) (1, 1) (2, 2) (3, 3) (4, 4).
            }
        }
    }
    Zip1().WriteLines();

    using (IBuffer<int> source2 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Share())
    {
        IEnumerable<(int, int)> Zip2()
        {
            using (IEnumerator<int> sharedIterator1 = source2.GetEnumerator())
            using (IEnumerator<int> sharedIterator2 = source2.GetEnumerator())
            {
                while (sharedIterator1.MoveNext() && sharedIterator2.MoveNext())
                {
                    yield return (sharedIterator1.Current, sharedIterator2.Current);
                    // yield return (0, 1) (2, 3).
                }
            }
        }
        Zip2().WriteLines();
    }

    IEnumerable<int> source3 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5);
    IEnumerable<(int, int)> Zip3()
    {
        using (IBuffer<int> source = source3.Share())
        using (IEnumerator<int> sharedIterator1 = source.GetEnumerator())
        using (IEnumerator<int> sharedIterator2 = source.GetEnumerator())
        {
            while (sharedIterator1.MoveNext() && sharedIterator2.MoveNext())
            {
                yield return (sharedIterator1.Current, sharedIterator2.Current);
                // yield return (0, 1) (2, 3).
            }
        }
    }
    Zip3().WriteLines();
}

Publish has the same signatures as Share:

public static IBuffer<TSource> Publish<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source);

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Publish<TSource, TResult>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TResult>> selector);

It also buffers the values in a different way, so each iterator yields all remainder values:

internal static void Publish()
{
    using (IBuffer<int> publish = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Publish())
    { 
        IEnumerator<int> remainderIteratorA = publish.GetEnumerator();
        // remainderIteratorA: 0 1 2 3 4.                                         A|B|C
        remainderIteratorA.MoveNext(); remainderIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 0| |
        remainderIteratorA.MoveNext(); remainderIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 1| |
        remainderIteratorA.MoveNext(); remainderIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 2| |
        IEnumerator<int> remainderIteratorB = publish.GetEnumerator();         //  | |
        // remainderIteratorB: 3 4.                                                | |
        remainderIteratorB.MoveNext(); remainderIteratorB.Current.WriteLine(); //  |3|
        remainderIteratorA.MoveNext(); remainderIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 3| |
        IEnumerator<int> remainderIteratorC = publish.GetEnumerator();         //  | |
        // remainderIteratorC: 4.                                                  | |
        remainderIteratorB.MoveNext(); remainderIteratorB.Current.WriteLine(); //  |4|
        remainderIteratorA.MoveNext(); remainderIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 4| |
        remainderIteratorC.MoveNext(); remainderIteratorC.Current.WriteLine(); //  | |4
    }
}

Memoize (not Memorize) simply buffers all values:

public static IBuffer<TSource> Memoize<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source);

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Memoize<TSource, TResult>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TResult>> selector);

The term momoize/memoization means buffering the function call result, so that when the same call happens again, the buffered result can be returned. Its multiple iterators work like independent, but each value is only pulled once and is buffered for reuse:

internal static void Memoize()
{
    using (IBuffer<int> memoize = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Memoize())
    {
        IEnumerator<int> bufferIteratorA = memoize.GetEnumerator();
        // bufferIteratorA: 0 1 2 3 4.                                      A|B|C
        bufferIteratorA.MoveNext(); bufferIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 0| |
        bufferIteratorA.MoveNext(); bufferIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 1| |
        bufferIteratorA.MoveNext(); bufferIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 2| |
        IEnumerator<int> bufferIteratorB = memoize.GetEnumerator();      //  | |
        // bufferIteratorB: 0 1 2 3 4.                                       | |
        bufferIteratorB.MoveNext(); bufferIteratorB.Current.WriteLine(); //  |0|
        bufferIteratorA.MoveNext(); bufferIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 3| |
        IEnumerator<int> bufferIteratorC = memoize.GetEnumerator();      //  | |
        // bufferIteratorC: 0 1 2 3 4.                                       | |
        bufferIteratorB.MoveNext(); bufferIteratorB.Current.WriteLine(); //  |1|
        bufferIteratorA.MoveNext(); bufferIteratorA.Current.WriteLine(); // 4| |
        bufferIteratorC.MoveNext(); bufferIteratorC.Current.WriteLine(); //  | |0
        bufferIteratorC.MoveNext(); bufferIteratorC.Current.WriteLine(); //  | |1
        bufferIteratorB.MoveNext(); bufferIteratorB.Current.WriteLine(); //  |2|
        // ...
    }
}

There 2 more overloads accept a readerCount to specify how many times can the buffered values be reused:

public static IBuffer<TSource> Memoize<TSource>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, int readerCount);

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Memoize<TSource, TResult>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, int readerCount, Func<IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TResult>> selector);

When exceeding the readerCount, an InvalidOperationException is thrown: Element no longer available in the buffer.

internal static void MemoizeWithReaderCount()
{
    using (IBuffer<int> source1 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Memoize(2))
    {
        int[] reader1 = source1.ToArray(); // First full iteration.
        int[] reader2 = source1.ToArray(); // Second full iteration.
        int[] reader3 = source1.ToArray(); // Third full iteration: InvalidOperationException.
    }

    IEnumerable<int> source2 = Enumerable.Range(0, 5);
    source2
        .Memoize(
            readerCount: 2, 
            selector: source => source // First full iteration.
                .Concat(source) // Second full iteration.
                .Concat(source)) // Third full iteration: InvalidOperationException.
        .WriteLines();
}

Exception

The exception query methods address some exception related scenarios for IEnumerable<T>. Throw query just throws the specified exception when executed:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Throw<TResult>(Exception exception)
{
    throw exception;
    yield break; // Deferred execution.
}

The yield break statement at the end is required for deferred execution. Without the yield break statement, the specified exception is thrown immediately when Throw is called. With the yield break statement, a generator is returned when Throw is called, and the specified exception is thrown when trying to pull value from the returned generator for the first time. For example:

internal static void Throw()
{
    IEnumerable<int> @throw = EnumerableEx.Throw<int>(new OperationCanceledException());
    IEnumerable<int> query = Enumerable.Range(0, 5).Concat(@throw); // Define query.
    try
    {
        foreach (int value in query) // Execute query.
        {
            value.WriteLine();
        }
    }
    catch (OperationCanceledException exception)
    {
        exception.WriteLine();
    }
    // 0 1 2 3 4 System.OperationCanceledException: The operation was canceled.
}

Catch accepts a source sequence and an exception handler function. When the query is executed, it pulls and yields each value from source sequence. If there is no exception of the specified type thrown during the evaluation, the handler is not called. If any exception of the specified type is thrown, it calls the exception handler with the exception. The handler returns a sequence, whose values are then pulled and yielded. So Catch’s concept is:

// Cannot be compiled.
public static IEnumerable<TSource> CatchWithYield<TSource, TException>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TException, IEnumerable<TSource>> handler)
    where TException : Exception
{
    try
    {
        foreach (TSource value in source)
        {
            yield return value; // Deferred execution.
        }
    }
    catch (TException exception)
    {
        foreach (TSource value in handler(exception) ?? Empty<TSource>())
        {
            yield return value; // Deferred execution.
        }
    }
}

However, yield return statement inside try-catch statement is not supported by C# compiler. Compiling the above code results error CS1626: Cannot yield a value in the body of a try block with a catch clause. The code can be compiled by replacing yield return statement with IYielder<T>.Return call:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> CatchWithYield<TSource, TException>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TException, IEnumerable<TSource>> handler)
    where TException : Exception => Create<TSource>(async yield =>
{
    try
    {
        foreach (TSource value in source)
        {
            await yield.Return(value); // yield return value;
        }
    }
    catch (TException exception)
    {
        foreach (TSource value in handler(exception) ?? Empty<TSource>())
        {
            await yield.Return(value); // yield return value;
        }
    }
});

However, this version does not work at runtime. So, the solution is to desugar the foreach loop to a while loop for iterator. Then the try-catch statement can go inside the loop, and only contains iterator’s MoveNext and Current calls, so that yield return statement can go outside the try-catch statement.

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Catch<TSource, TException>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TException, IEnumerable<TSource>> handler)
    where TException : Exception
{
    TException firstException = null;
    using (IEnumerator<TSource> iterator = source.GetEnumerator())
    {
        while (true)
        {
            TSource value;
            try // Only MoveNext and Current are inside try-catch.
            {
                if (iterator.MoveNext())
                {
                    value = iterator.Current;
                }
                else
                {
                    break; // Stops while loop at the end of iteration.
                }
            }
            catch (TException exception)
            {
                firstException = exception;
                break; // Stops while loop if TException is thrown.
            }
            yield return value; // Deferred execution, outside try-catch.
        }
    }
    if (firstException != null)
    {
        foreach (TSource value in handler(firstException) ?? Empty<TSource>())
        {
            yield return value; // Deferred execution.
        }
    }
}

And here is a simple example:

internal static void CatchWithHandler()
{
    IEnumerable<string> @throw = EnumerableEx.Throw<string>(new OperationCanceledException());
    IEnumerable<string> @catch = @throw.Catch<string, OperationCanceledException>(
        exception => EnumerableEx.Return($"Handled {exception.GetType().Name}: {exception.Message}"));
    @catch.WriteLines(); // Handled OperationCanceledException: The operation was canceled.
}

The other Catch overloads accepts multiple sequences, and return a single sequence. The idea is, when executed, it tries to pull and yield values of the first sequence. if there is no exception, it stops execution; If any exception is thrown, it tries to pull and yield the values of the next sequence, and so on;  After stopping the evaluation, it checks if there is any exception from the evaluation of the last sequence. If yes, it re-throws that exception. The concept is:

// Cannot be compiled.
public static IEnumerable<TSource> CatchWithYield<TSource>(this IEnumerable<IEnumerable<TSource>> sources)
{
    Exception lastException = null;
    foreach (IEnumerable<TSource> source in sources)
    {
        lastException = null;
        try
        {
            foreach (TSource value in source)
            {
                yield return value; // Deferred execution.
            }
            break; // Stops if no exception from current sequence.
        }
        catch (Exception exception)
        {
            lastException = exception;
            // Continue with next sequence if there is exception.
        }
    }
    if (lastException != null)
    {
        throw lastException;
    }
}

Again, yield in above code can be replaced with IYielder<T> to compile, but that does not work at runtime. So above desugared while-try-catch-yield pattern can be used:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Catch<TSource>(this IEnumerable<IEnumerable<TSource>> sources)
{
    Exception lastException = null;
    foreach (IEnumerable<TSource> source in sources)
    {
        using (IEnumerator<TSource> iterator = source.GetEnumerator())
        {
            while (true)
            {
                lastException = null;
                TSource value;
                try // Only MoveNext and Current are inside try-catch.
                {
                    if (iterator.MoveNext())
                    {
                        value = iterator.Current;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        break; // Stops while loop at the end of iteration.
                    }
                }
                catch (Exception exception)
                {
                    lastException = exception;
                    break; // Stops while loop if TException is thrown.
                }
                yield return value; // Deferred execution, outside try-catch.
            }
        }
        if (lastException == null)
        {
            break; // If no exception, stops pulling the next source; otherwise, continue.
        }
    }
    if (lastException != null)
    {
        throw lastException;
    }
}

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Catch<TSource>(params IEnumerable<TSource>[] sources) => sources.Catch();

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Catch<TSource>
    (this IEnumerable<TSource> first, IEnumerable<TSource> second) => 
        new IEnumerable<TSource>[] { first, second }.Catch();

For example:

internal static void Catch()
{
    IEnumerable<int> scanWithException = Enumerable.Repeat(0, 5).Scan((a, b) => a / b); // Divide by 0.
    IEnumerable<int> range = Enumerable.Range(0, 5);
    IEnumerable<int> castWithException = new object[] { 5, "a" }.Cast<int>();

    IEnumerable<IEnumerable<int>> source1 = new IEnumerable<int>[]
    {
        scanWithException, // Executed, with DivideByZeroException.
        range, // Executed, without exception.
        castWithException // Not executed.
    };
    source1.Catch().WriteLines(); // 0 1 2 3 4

    IEnumerable<IEnumerable<int>> source2 = new IEnumerable<int>[]
    {
        scanWithException,  // Executed, with DivideByZeroException.
        castWithException // Executed, with InvalidCastException.
    };
    try
    {
        source2.Catch().WriteLines(); // 5 
    }
    catch (InvalidCastException exception)
    {
        exception.WriteLine(); // System.InvalidCastException: Specified cast is not valid.
    }
}

Besides Throw and Catch, there is also Finally query method. Finally is very intuitive:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Finally<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Action finalAction)
{
    try
    {
        foreach (TSource value in source)
        {
            yield return value; // Deferred execution.
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        finalAction();
    }
}

OnErrorResumeNext is the same as Concat above, but it ignores any exception when evaluating values from each sequence. The idea is:

// Cannot be compiled.
internal static IEnumerable<TSource> OnErrorResumeNextWithYield<TSource>(
    this IEnumerable<IEnumerable<TSource>> sources)
{
    foreach (IEnumerable<TSource> source in sources)
    {
        try
        {
            foreach (TSource value in source)
            {
                yield return value; // Deferred execution.
            }
        }
        catch { }
    }
}

Once again, this can be implemented with the desugared while-try-catch-yield pattern:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> OnErrorResumeNext<TSource>(IEnumerable<IEnumerable<TSource>> sources)
{
    foreach (IEnumerable<TSource> source in sources)
    {
        using (IEnumerator<TSource> iterator = source.GetEnumerator())
        {
            while (true)
            {
                TSource value = default;
                try
                {
                    if (!iterator.MoveNext())
                    {
                        break;
                    }
                    value = iterator.Current;
                }
                catch
                {
                    break;
                }
                yield return value; // Deferred execution.
            }
        }
    }
}

public static IEnumerable<TSource> OnErrorResumeNext<TSource>(
    params IEnumerable<TSource>[] sources) => sources.OnErrorResumeNext();

public static IEnumerable<TSource> OnErrorResumeNext<TSource>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> first, IEnumerable<TSource> second) =>
        new IEnumerable<TSource>[] { first, second }.OnErrorResumeNext();

Retry query tries to yield the source values. If there is an exception thrown, it retries to yield the values again from the beginning of the source sequence:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Retry<TSource>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, int? retryCount = null) => 
        Return(source).Repeat(retryCount).Catch();

If retryCount is not provided, it retries forever.

Imperative

The imperative query methods just wrap the imperative control flows, and return a sequence for fluent LINQ query. If represents the if-else statement:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> If<TResult>(
    Func<bool> condition, IEnumerable<TResult> thenSource, IEnumerable<TResult> elseSource = null) =>
        Defer(() => condition() ? thenSource : elseSource ?? Enumerable.Empty<TResult>());

Case represents the switch-case statement. It accepts a selector function as the key factory, and a dictionary of key-sequence pairs, where each key represents a case label of the switch statement. When Case query is executed, the selector function is called to return a key. If the dictionary contains the key returned by selector, then the matching sequence is returned; otherwise, a default sequence is returned:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Case<TValue, TResult>(
    Func<TValue> selector,
    IDictionary<TValue, IEnumerable<TResult>> sources,
    IEnumerable<TResult> defaultSource = null) => 
        Defer(() => sources.TryGetValue(selector(), out IEnumerable<TResult> result)
            ? result
            : (defaultSource ?? Enumerable.Empty<TResult>()));

Using represents the using statement:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Using<TSource, TResource>(
    Func<TResource> resourceFactory, Func<TResource, IEnumerable<TSource>> enumerableFactory) 
    where TResource : IDisposable
{
    using (TResource resource = resourceFactory())
    {
        foreach (TSource value in enumerableFactory(resource))
        {
            yield return value; // Deferred execution.
        }
    }
}

While represents the while loop:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> While<TResult>(Func<bool> condition, IEnumerable<TResult> source)
{
    while (condition())
    {
        foreach (TResult value in source)
        {
            yield return value; // Deferred execution.
        }
    }
}

DoWhile represents the do-while loop:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> DoWhile<TResult>(
    this IEnumerable<TResult> source, Func<bool> condition) => source.Concat(While(condition, source));

Generate represents the for loop:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> Generate<TState, TResult>(
    TState initialState, 
    Func<TState, bool> condition, 
    Func<TState, TState> iterate, 
    Func<TState, TResult> resultSelector)
{
    for (TState state = initialState; condition(state); state = iterate(state))
    {
        yield return resultSelector(state); // Deferred execution.
    }
}

Surprisingly, For is exactly the same as SelectMany:

public static IEnumerable<TResult> For<TSource, TResult>(
    IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TSource, IEnumerable<TResult>> resultSelector) =>
        source.SelectMany(resultSelector);

Not sure why Generate and For are named in this way.

Iteration

Do does not transform the data in any way. It simply pull source values just like Hide. It also accepts 3 callback functions, onNext, onError, and onCompleted. When each source value is pulled, onNext is called with the value. When exception is thrown for pulling source value, onError is called with the exception. After all source values are pulled successfully without exception, onCompleted is called. Do can be implemented with the desugared while-try-catch-yield pattern:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Do<TSource>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source,
    Action<TSource> onNext, Action<Exception> onError = null, Action onCompleted = null)
{
    using (IEnumerator<TSource> iterator = source.GetEnumerator())
    {
        while (true)
        {
            TSource value;
            try
            {
                if (!iterator.MoveNext())
                {
                    break;
                }
                value = iterator.Current;
            }
            catch (Exception exception)
            {
                onError?.Invoke(exception);
                throw;
            }
            onNext(value);
            yield return value; // Deferred execution, outside try-catch.
        }
        onCompleted?.Invoke();
    }
}

Do is very useful for logging and tracing LINQ queries, for example:

internal static void Do()
{
    Enumerable
        .Range(-5, 10).Do(
            onNext: value => $"{nameof(Enumerable.Range)} yields {value}.".WriteLine(),
            onCompleted: () => $"{nameof(Enumerable.Range)} query completes.".WriteLine())
        .Where(value => value > 0).Do(
            onNext: value => $"{nameof(Enumerable.Where)} yields {value}.".WriteLine(),
            onCompleted: () => $"{nameof(Enumerable.Where)} query completes.".WriteLine())
        .TakeLast(2).Do(
            onNext: value => $"{nameof(EnumerableEx.TakeLast)} yields {value}.".WriteLine(),
            onCompleted: () => $"{nameof(EnumerableEx.TakeLast)} query completes.".WriteLine())
        .WriteLines(value => $"Query yields result {value}.");
    // Range yields -5.
    // Range yields -4.
    // Range yields -3.
    // Range yields -2.
    // Range yields -1.
    // Range yields 0.
    // Range yields 1.
    // Where yields 1.
    // Range yields 2.
    // Where yields 2.
    // Range yields 3.
    // Where yields 3.
    // Range yields 4.
    // Where yields 4.
    // Range query completes.
    // Where query completes.
    // TakeLast yields 3.
    // Query yields result 3.
    // TakeLast yields 4.
    // Query yields result 4.
    // TakeLast query completes.
}

Since System.IObserver<T> is the composition of above onNext, onError, onCompleted functions:

namespace System
{
    public interface IObserver<in T>
    {
        void OnCompleted();

        void OnError(Exception error);

        void OnNext(T value);
    }
}

Do also has a overload accepting an observer:

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Do<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, IObserver<TSource> observer) =>
    Do(source, observer.OnNext, observer.OnError, observer.OnCompleted);

Value queries

Aggregation

The additional overloads of Max/Min accept a comparer function, and return the first maximum/minimum value:

public static TSource Max<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, IComparer<TSource> comparer);

public static TSource Min<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, IComparer<TSource> comparer);

As fore mentioned, to use the standard Max/Min with a source sequence, exception is thrown if the source type does not implement IComparable or IComparable<T>, which is a problem when the source type cannot be modified:

internal static void MaxMinGeneric()
{
    Character maxCharacter = Characters().Max().WriteLine();
    Character minCharacter = Characters().Min().WriteLine();
}

The overloads with comparer does not have such requirement:

internal static void MaxMin()
{
    Character maxCharacter = Characters()
        .Max(Comparer<Character>.Create((character1, character2) => 
            string.Compare(character1.Name, character2.Name, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase)));
    Character minCharacter = Characters()
        .Max(Comparer<Character>.Create((character1, character2) =>
            string.Compare(character1.Name, character2.Name, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase)));
}

MaxBy/MinBy accept key selector and key comparer functions, they return a list of all maximum/minimum values:

public static IList<TSource> MaxBy<TSource, TKey>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TSource, TKey> keySelector);

public static IList<TSource> MaxBy<TSource, TKey>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TSource, TKey> keySelector, IComparer<TKey> comparer);

public static IList<TSource> MinBy<TSource, TKey>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TSource, TKey> keySelector);

public static IList<TSource> MinBy<TSource, TKey>(
    this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TSource, TKey> keySelector, IComparer<TKey> comparer);

For example:

internal static void MaxByMinBy()
{
    IList<Character> maxCharacters = Characters()
        .MaxBy(character => character.Name, StringComparer.OrdinalIgnoreCase);
    IList<Character> minCharacters = Characters()
        .MinBy(character => character.Name, StringComparer.OrdinalIgnoreCase);
}

The previous example of finding the maximum types in .NET core library becomes easy with MaxBy:

internal static void MaxBy()
{
    CoreLibrary.GetExportedTypes()
        .Select(type => (Type: type, MemberCount: type.GetDeclaredMembers().Length))
        .MaxBy(typeAndMemberCount => typeAndMemberCount.MemberCount)
        .WriteLines(max => $"{max.Type.FullName}:{max.MemberCount}"); // System.Convert:311
}

Quantifiers

There is a IsEmpty query method for convenience. It is just the opposite of Any:

public static bool IsEmpty<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source) => !source.Any();

Void queries

Iteration

ForEach represents the foreach loop, with a non-indexed overload and a indexed overload, which can be fluently used at the end of the query:

public static void ForEach<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Action<TSource> onNext)
{
    foreach (TSource value in source)
    {
        onNext(value);
    }
}

public static void ForEach<TSource>(this IEnumerable<TSource> source, Action<TSource, int> onNext)
{
    int index = 0;
    foreach (TSource value in source)
    {
        onNext(value, index);
        index = checked(index + 1);
    }
}

There was an issue with the indexed ForEach – the index increment was not checked. The issue was uncovered when writing this book and has been fixed.

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